Category Archives: monitoring

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GEOLAND Handbook presented at EUROGEO 2022

GEOLAND was presented at EUROGEO 2022, a conference held on Lesvos island, Island, Greece on 5-6 May 2022 nd the first output – GEOLAND Handbook on Digital Educational Geoinformatic Methodologies for Monitoring Landscape was launched. output 1

The event attracted more than 120 educators and researchers from over 35 countries. Over 90 presentations, 5 workshops and 15 posters were presented.

EUROGEO conference Lesvos 2022 took the theme “RE-VISIONING GEOGRAPHY FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE POST-COVID ERA”. The following were the Conference Strands:
– How do geographers, universities, companies and education respond to Sustainable Development Goals and complex challenges in the context of the COVID pandemic?presentation image
– What is the role of Geography in the landscape of spatial technologies and open data and how can these assist in achieving SDGs?
– How new eco-social challenges are positioned in the face of a post-pandemic Global Change?
– How can we explore novel educational contexts and resources to transform towards sustainability of socio-ecological systems?
– What conceptual frameworks and strategies can contribute to the construction of societies based on human welfare and the care of nature?
– What are the interactions between Sustainable Development Goals, international migrations and refugees?

See the Full conference programme

Download the Handbook in English
Download the Handbook in Dutch

View the presentation below

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The importance of satellite images

Satellite images are images of Earth collected by imaging satellites that are operated either by governments or companies. Satellite images are one of the most powerful and important tools we have for monitoring the earth. They track the physical environment (water, air, land, vegetation) and the changing human footprint across the globe. Satellite imagery is used to measure, identify and track human activity.

Satellite images have many applications for instance in meteorology and weather forecasting,  fishing, oceanography, agriculture, conservation, forestry, landscape analysis, geology, mapping, regional planning, environmental assessment, intelligence, warfare and education.  In education, satellite images are present in textbooks and online as support for maps, graphs and text.

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Currently, improvements in Earth Observation programs are opening the door for the educational community to increasingly use satellite image products. You can access them from the following links.

European Space Agency (ESA) :Using infra-red imagery
Edusat: Aprendre a observar la Terra
European Space Agency (ESA): Education resources 
NASA visible earth: image catalogue
NASA Earth Data Learn:  learning about image sensors 
Landsat Outreach: education resources
USGS: tracking change over time
Sentinel Hub: learn about satellite imagery

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NATURA 2000 and cultural heritage

The NATURA 2000 network is a European ecological network of sites which are home to significant natural habitats and species at a European level. It is the largest coordinated network of protected areas in the world and its aim is to ensure the long-term survival of Europe’s most valuable and threatened species and habitats .

There has been an increasing acknowledgement of the links between the natural and built cultural heritage. As a result, a number of case studies have been created by the European Commission in order to point out the successful integrated management of natural and cultural heritage at Natura 2000 sites. Examples of the use of farmland

Moreover, it has become obvious that these links need to be strengthened and common threats and challenges explored as well as opportunities for joint initiatives. Visit the Commission Web pagenatura seminar image

It is often difficult to make the distinction between nature and culture, particularly as we look to the past. Nature and culture tend to be tightly interconnected in forms such as storytelling with the oral tradition being an important means of conveying this relationship.

Community engagement is necessary to ensure that heritage is well aligned with community needs, identify and perceptions. This is particularly important for less tangible aspects of heritage.

Explore the European Commission presentation on integrated management 

Subscribe to the Natura 2000 newsletter to stay up-to-date on relevant events and initiatives.

Getting familiar with NATURA 2000 in Bulgaria

Natura 2000 is described as a pan-European network of protected areas aimed at ensuring the long-term survival of Europe’s most valuable and endangered species and habitats in accordance with national and international agreements in the field of environmental protection and biodiversity. This suggests that indeed this network should spread all across the old continent. This news article examines those in Bulgaria.

Natura 2000 has become so important that it has been an official prerequisite for future member states who wish to join the European union. For Bulgaria, the process of creating the Natura 2000 ecological network began in 2002 (5 years prior Bulgaria’s accession in the EU) with the adoption of the National Biodiversity Act (BDA), which introduces the norms of the two European directives related to NATURA 2000: The Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora and the 2009/147/EC Directive on the conservation of wild birds.

Following the BDA, Bulgaria managed to list the protected areas and have them declared in the country as part of the National Ecological Network: places on land and water, that meet the requirements for the presence of important for biodiversity plants and animal species, and types of natural habitats included in the EU directives mentioned earlier.

The Natura 2000 Protected zones in Bulgaria are estimated to be 34.8% of its territory, twice the EU average, making Bulgaria the third in EU when it comes to protected areas share. Currently, the network of protected areas includes:

  • 120 protected areas for protection of wild birds, covering 23.1% of the territory of Bulgaria;
  • 233 protected areas for protection of natural habitats, covering 30.3% of the territory of Bulgaria

The Natura 2000 network database for Bulgaria is publicly available online. The website allows you to filter a search by name, site code, type of protected species, habitats, place (e.g. a specific city or municipality). Here are some of the most well-known Bulgarian Natura 2000 sites we wanted to share with you.

Atanasovsko lake – the lake is known for its habitat of protected species: out of the 400 bird species which can be seen all over Bulgaria, 316 species are found here and 14 of them are globally endangered. In addition, 83 bird species are included in the Red Book of Bulgaria, and 170 species are of European natural protection significance. The lake is located north-east of the city of Burgas and in the past it was exploited for salt extraction. The salterns had existed since 1906. What’s intriguing about the Atanasovsko Lake is that it does not freeze during the winter, which turns the lake into a center of the hibernating water birds. If you are interested in learning more about the Atansovsko lake, you may do so by reading the official NATURA 2000 data form available in English and check out the following video tour for a more interactive experience.

– Rila – the highest mountain range in Bulgaria with an area of 2629 km² where 779.27 km² are included within the Natura 2000 network. It includes 24 types of habitats. Rila National Park is the most significant territory in presence in the country of high-mountain glacial lakes and lake biota of glacial type. The total importance of natural resource and the richness of the habitats is 11% of the European ones. The habitats include 192 vertebrates species and 2934 species and sub-species invertebrate fauna, 312 out which are rare. The Rila mountains are the highest in the Balkan peninsula with its highest peak Musala reaching 2925 m. The Rila is also home to a number of tourist attractions of high interest like The 7 Rila lakes, The Rila Monastery (also part of the UNESCO heritage), the Rilska Skakavitza waterfall and many other.

Rila lake imagesource: Bulgaria Travel

To find out more about the Rila mountains, read the official NATURA 2000 data form available in English here or by reading the information available at this specialised eco-tourism web site.

Kompleks Kaliakra -Kaliakra is one of the most well-known Bulgarian Black sea nature and archaeological reserve. It expands over 687.5 decares with wild steppes and beautiful coastal rocks. Within the territory of Kaliakra,  can be found more than 400 plant species, while 310 kinds of birds live on the territory of Kaliakra and 100 of them require special measures for preservation of their habitats. 106 of these bird species are protected at European level. The marine area east of Cape Kaliakra – Tulenovo is a fish habitat including a migratory corridor to spawning grounds in the Danube River and a region for the nurturing and growth of juvenile fish and spawning stock after the breeding. The region is the richest of lime steppe habitats as well as coastal cliffs habitats and coastal cave habitats in Bulgaria. Kaliakra is also a place of historical significance (first settlements are estimated at around 4th century B.C.) and a very popular tourist destination. If you are interested in learning more about Kompleks Kaliakra, you may do so by reading the official NATURA 2000 data form available in English here or reading the following article about the area.

Kaliakra aerial photosource: Bulgaria Travel

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First GEOLAND Project Newsletter Published

Partners in the GEOLAND Project have published their first newsletter. GEOLAND focuses on Digital Educational Geoinformatic Methodologies for Monitoring Landscape. The newsletter contains stories about  the presentation of the GEOLAND project in the Technology Forum of Thessaloniki (Greece), the Manifesto on the future of European landscape, introducing the NATURA 2000 sites, the first project meeting in Crete and the use of GIS in schools in Bulgaria.

Read and subscribe to the newsletter

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Cumbre Vieja lava flows, Palma

Remote sensing data is increasingly being used to monitor and assess active volcaniclava image processes and their risk to life and landscape. Remote sensing can provide a number of different observation and measurement opportunities to examine the dynamics and impacts of volcanic activity by using ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), infrared (IR), and microwave sensors. combine with GIS significant analytical power can be harnessed to better understand the situation.

Cumbre Vieja is volcano located on the island of La Palma, which is part of the Spanish Canary Islands and lies west of Tenerife. Natura 2000 protects 51% of the total surface of the island. The volcano is active for the first time in last 50 years and its eruptive activity began on Sunday, September 19. Since then lava has destroyed and engulfed over 600 buildings and caused extensive damage to agricultural crops and banana plantations, which are inside of plastic greenhouses that burn on contact with lava and release toxic substances into the atmosphere. 

A crack opened in the Cumbre Vieja volcano on 19 September, ash and lava were thrown into the air. Lava then flowed down the mountain and through villages engulfing everything in its path. By 28 September, a 6-km lava flow had been created, which has now reached the ocean on the island’s west coast. Clouds of white steam were reported where the red-hot lava hit the water in the Playa Nueva area.

The eruption has so far driven almost 7,000 people from their homes. Flights from the local airport were interrupted due to the ashes scattered in the air. The lava flow arrived in the coast of Atlantic Ocean on Tuesday night. Experts have previously warned that when hot lava with a temperature of about 1000 degrees Celsius contacts with salty seawater it will lead to creation of toxic emissions. Using Copernicus and Landsat satellite services, higher education students can track the changes on the landscape produced by lava flows.

The following links provide up-to-date data and information about the lava eruption of Cumbre Vieja.

 

Landscape and shallow landslides in Switzerland

The has undertaken research of the impact of forest structure and water balance on shallow landslides. The aim is to provide forest management with practical support in the Davos region of Switzerland.

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Almost half of Switzerland’s forest is protection forest, meaning that it is used to protect citizens from alpine mass movements and consequently reduces the risk to people and infrastructure.

It is essential that research is undertaken and the results are implemented. For this, data should be easy to collect but also practically relevant. Additionally there may be conflicts between economic efficiency and the sustainable preservation of the protective function of the forest. So, the quantification of the impact of vegetation poses a major challenge for research.

Find out more